The modern Patna name is given by the Pathan ruler Sher Shah Suri, he named it Paithana, which after the death of Sher Shah was patronized by the last Hindu emperor Hemachandra Vikramaditya. Patna is one of the few ancient ancient cities of the world which is highly It is inhabited since ancient times.
This city has historical significance in itself. Megasthenes BC (350 BC-290 BC) has mentioned this city in his book Indica written after his visit to India. Palibothra (Pataliputra) which was situated at the confluence of the Ganges and the Arenovas (Sonbhadra-Hiranyavah). According to the estimates of that book, ancient Patna (Palibotha) was 9 miles (14.5 km) long and 1.75 miles (2.8 km) wide.
Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar and is situated on the southern bank of the Ganges River. Where the Ganges joins tributaries like Ghaghra, Son and Gandak. 
The city, with a population of more than sixteen lakhs (1,683,200 as per 2011 census), is about 15 km long and 7 km wide.  
The ancient Buddhist and Jain pilgrimage centers are located around the city of Vaishali, Rajgir or Rajgriha, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya and Pavapuri Patna. Patna is a very sacred place for Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and last Guru of the Sikhs, was born in Patna. Every year, lakhs of Sikh devotees from India and abroad come to visit Harmandir Saheb in Patna and offer prayers.
The ancient ruins / ruins of Patna and its surroundings are silent witnesses to the historical glory of the city and still display the ancient dignity of the city.
Apart from historical and administrative importance, Patna is also a major center of education, medicine, and commercial. The old area of the city surrounded by walls, known as Patna City.