The US did not drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki just to end the war.
Becoming world victorious is the dream of the dictator of every powerful country. Hitler dreamed the same. On September 1, 1939, by suddenly attacking Poland, he started to fulfill this dream, it was also the beginning of World War II. Japan’s dynasty in the Far East was also expanding its reach in the Asia-Pacific region since 1937 in the desire to fulfill this dream. Soon he too became involved in World War II. Hitler came in tow and invaded the Soviet Union (Russia) on June 22, 1941 and attacked the “Russian Bear” (Russia has been depicted with this symbol for a long time). Japan also furiously challenged the US on December 7, 1941 by bombarding the US naval base Pearl Harbor in the Pacific Ocean. This provocation of Japan became an open invitation for America to jump into the Second World War.
In the beginning, these two countries moved forward very fast. When Germany occupied a large part of Europe, Japan had expanded over a large area of the Asia-Pacific Ocean. But after the defeat of the Japanese army near Hawaii in 1942 and the German army at Stalingrad in 1943, the wheel of luck turned around for these two countries. Germany’s defeat was decided in the next two years. 10 days after his 56th birthday, in 1945, on the night of April 29–30, Hitler first married his girlfriend Effa Brown in his underground bunker in Berlin, and both committed suicide a few hours later. Before his death, Hitler wrote in his will, “I and my wife are committing death in exchange for the shame of becoming a fugitive or surrendering.” On midnight, seven to eight, Germany unconditionally, just a week after Hitler’s suicide. surrendered. In this way, the Second World War ended in Europe, it continued in nskfv Asia. Even Japan had a broken back, but he was delaying his knee.
Potsdam Summit of US, Soviet Union and Britain
Two months after the defeat of Germany, a summit took place from 17 July to 2 August 1945 in the city of Potsdam adjacent to Berlin. It included three main winners of the Second World War – US President Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin. It was in this meeting that the partition of Germany was agreed. During this conference, President Truman received the news that on July 16, the test of the first uranium atomic bomb in the Las Alamos desert of America (Trinity test) was successful. Also, a second bomb (Little Boy) is being sent to the island of ‘Tinyan’ in the Pacific Ocean for use in war. The same day, Churchill also came to know about this. In his memoirs, he wrote, ‘Suddenly that nightmare (Japan) had vanished, replaced by the comforting possibility that now one or two destructive attacks would end the war.’
President Truman, referring to the meeting in his diary, writes that on July 24, he told Soviet leader Stalin, in such a way as if it was not a big deal, that the US had made a bomb that caused Japan’s Conscious hideouts can be applied. Stalin also said with great ease that it is better if you ‘use it’ well. It is believed that Stalin had got a glimpse of the bomb through the British physicist Klaus Fuchs, who was associated with the German nuclear project of America, the Manhattan Project. The same evening, Stalin instructed the Soviet intelligence service chief Lavrenti Berea to speed up the work of the Russian atomic bomb since 1943.
Preparation for use of special bomb
On 25 July, US President Truman ordered the commander-in-chief of the US Pacific Ocean Air Force stationed on the island of Tinian in the Philippine Sea from Potsdam to prepare for the use of a ‘special bomb’ by 3 August. The special bomb that Truman was trying to drop on August 3 was the uranium bomb. But with this, a second bomb ‘Fat Man’ was also being prepared. It was a plutonium bomb that was prepared two weeks after the ‘Trinity’ test. However, he was yet to undergo a full trial.
To know which one of the two is the destroyer, both types of bombs were to be dropped in two cities of Japan. For this, a list of four cities of Japan was prepared. The first list of potential targets included Kokura, Kyoto and Niigata, in addition to Hiroshima.
The memory of a honeymoon saved Kyoto
Nagasaki was not the target of America. But at the behest of then US war minister Stimson, the old capital of Japan, Kyoto, was removed from the list of possible cities and replaced with Nagasaki’s name. Stimson had a honeymoon with his wife in Kyoto, and he did not want it to be matted. On the other hand, military officers like General Dwight Eisenhower of America and physicists like Leo Zillard were against this bomb. He said that this would lead to a deadly nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. He also believed that since the defeat of Germany in Europe, Japan has become so weak that it was going to kneel on its own.
However, President Truman and his advisers remained firm on their intention to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. They said that the development of these bombs has been done by applying two billion dollars so that they are never used! It was argued that due to these bombs, Japan would soon surrender and the American soldiers would die. This additional concern of his troops for the US also came from the Japanese soldiers who had wiped out 12,500 American soldiers at the Battle of Okinawa in July 1945. By then, some 70 000 American soldiers had been killed throughout the Pacific Ocean.
Japan was already looking for a way to surrender
There is also a truth that by the time of July of 1945, Japan was looking for ways to negotiate peace talks. On July 9, a week before the Potsdam summit, the Japanese ambassador in Moscow met Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and requested that the leaders of the Potsdam summit be told that Japan wanted peace talks with them. But the President of America, who has become the world’s first nuclear power, was not interested in any peace talks, but in the unconditional surrender of Japan.
On July 25, 1945, the next day of the order to begin preparations for the use of the ‘special bomb’, on July 26, President Truman read a joint declaration in Potsdam on behalf of the Nationalist China Republic of America, Britain and Chiang Kai-shek. In this, there was a demand from Japan to surrender without any conditions. There was no consultation with the Soviet Union for this. While Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov requested that this declaration be deferred for a few days so that his government could declare the end of its non-aggression treaty with Japan.
After the Soviet-Japanese border conflict of 1939, on April 13, 1941, the two countries made a pact not to attack each other for the next five years. But two months later, when the Soviet Union became a victim of the German invasion, it had to join the anti-Hitler Allied faction. During this time, he assured the allies that if needed, he would not hesitate to open a front against Germany’s partner Japan in the Far East. The dilemma was also with Japan how to execute a non-aggression pact with a country that is at war with its best friend, Germany. Nevertheless, both countries continued to take time till 1945. The US and Britain were urging that the Soviet Union open a front against Japan to lighten their burden in the Far East. The Soviet Union finally withdrew from the Non-aggression Pact with Japan on April 5, 1945. He invaded Japan-occupied Manchuria on August 8, 1945, soon after the conclusion of the Potsdam summit.
Truman did not want to surrender to Japan before the bomb
US President Truman’s priorities had changed in the meantime. After the successful nuclear test on 16 July, he wanted to single-handedly crack Japan. Now they did not need the Soviet Union. In his Potsdam Declaration on 26 July 1945, he said, “Our entire military strength and determination means the inevitable destruction of the Japanese army and the inevitable demolition of the Japanese country.” Japan will be completely captured. Its leaders will be overthrown and destroyed. Democracy will be established and more war-criminals will be punished. Japan’s territory will be limited to four main islands and compensation will be recovered from it … ‘
On August August 1945, Truman showed how much he wanted the destruction of Japan by dropping the first uranium atom bomb on Hiroshima. The bomb exploded 600 meters above the ground at 8.16 in the morning and within 43 seconds 80 percent of the central part of the city was destroyed. One such fireball with a temperature of 1 million Celsius spread rapidly, which destroyed everything that came within a radius of 10 km. Out of 76,000 houses in the city, 70,000 were destroyed or damaged. 70,000 to 80,000 people died instantly. Those who were in the nagar center had their bodies turned into steam.
As if all this is not enough, three days later, on August 9, at 11.30 am, the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. This bomb, which is more destructive than uranium, consumed 80 percent of the houses within a kilometer radius. It is estimated that 70,000 to 80,000 thousand people died there too. To justify both bombs, the argument was made that without them Japan would have continued to defer to surrender.
Was the second bomb on Nagasaki necessary?
Japan correspondent Klaus Sherer of Germany’s public broadcasting network ARD interacted with scientists, historians and former military officers from Japan and the United States and at the time of World War II